Terrorist Attacks and Peace in South Asia

 Dr. Kamrun Nahar *

alorkona@yahoo.com

Introduction

Terrorism is blurring the idea of peace from activities of those extremists who make justification for their retaliation on foes. Its inauspicious recurrences in less developed countries in Asia and Africa are clearly visible. With innovations of much destructive weapons and availability, casualties have dangerously increased. In south Asia, Bangladesh, India and Pakistan having less integration among people and less aegis are much enduring its blow. 

Bangladesh was disturbed with subversive activities of different active political parties, extremist communist parties and Islamic militant groups. Attacks often came in the form of bomb blasts. Almost all major political parties had recourse to terrorism to grab power. During strikes, processions and meetings, they attacked each other by bombing and shooting. Extremist communist parties were various factions of Bangladesher Biplabi Communist Party (M-L), Purba Banglar Communist Party (M-L) and Bangladesher Sarbahara Party. Militant groups were mainly Harkat-ul-Jihad-al Islami Bangladesh, Jamaatul Mujahidin Bangladesh and Ahle Hadith Andolan. Main cause of attack was to rise in power through intimidation and annihilation.

Examples of Some Terrorist Attacks in Bangladesh  

On 6 March 1999, attackers exploded time bombs at Udichi Concert in Jessore. (Death toll 10) 

On 6 December 2002, attackers set off bombs at four cinema halls in Mymensingh. (Death toll 19) 

On 12 January 2004, militants exploded bombs in a Muslim ceremony named Urs in the shrine of Hazrat Shahjalal (R), Sylhet. (Death toll 3 and the injured more than 50)

On 21 May 2004, militants threw a grenade at British High Commissioner Anwar Chowdhury in the shrine of Hazrat Shahjalal (R), Sylhet. (Death toll 8 and the injured more than 100 including British High Commissioner)

On 21 August 2004, terrorists hurled a series of grenades from top of a near building at antiterrorism mass-meeting of Awami League. This meeting was held in front of Awami League Office on Banga-Bandhu Avenue, Dhaka. (Death toll 20 including frontline leader Ivy Rahman of Awami League and the injured over 200)

India faced dreadful terrorist activities of different separatists, extremist communists and fundamentalists in different areas. Examples of separatist groups are Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE) in Tamil Nadu, People’s War Group (PWG) in Andhra Pradesh, Khalistan Liberation Organization in Punjab, United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA) in Assam, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) in Manipur etc. An example of extremist communist groups is Communist Party of India -Marxist-Leninist (CPI-ML). Main cause of attacks, as identified by specialists before, was disparity among religious communities and castes. Mumbai, the largest business city in India, was frequently a target from 1993 to 2008.

Examples of Some Terrorist Attacks in India

On 13 December 2001, terrorists in a car entered the parliament premises of India in New Delhi, exploded grenades and fired from AK-47 rifles. (Death toll 14 including 5 terrorists)

On 25 August 2003, anarchists exploded two bombs in cars near Gateway of India and Zaveri Bazaar, Mumbai. (Death toll 50)

On 29 October 2005, anarchists carried out three explosions in New Delhi. (Death toll more than 60 and the injured at least 200)

On 7 March 2006, attackers exploded a series of bombs in Varanasi city of Uttar Pradesh. (Death toll 15 and the injured 101)

On 11 July 2006, terrorists orchestrated a series of seven bombs in trains in Mumbai. (Death toll 209)

Pakistan was exhausted with formidable, insane activities of different Islamic sects. But since Afghanistan war, the situation of this country has much deteriorated from frequent terrorist attacks of Al-Qaeda, Tehrik-i-Taliban, and their linked organizations. From 2006 to 2009, skin-blanching 6,894 terrorist attacks in Pakistan killed 9, 643 people and injured many. Causes of attacks were animosity among religious sects, unity between governments of US and Pakistan on terrorism against Al-Qaeda and Taliban, and Afghanistan war.

Examples of Some Terrorist Attacks in Pakistan

On 18 October 2007, attackers exploded bombs targeting a convoy of former Prime Minister Benazir Butto in Karachi. (Death toll over 139 and the injured more than 450)

On 10 October 2008, a mass-meeting was held in Orakzai Agency, where local leaders emphasized on the formation of a militia to drive Taliban from their area. A suicide bomber in his car entered the meeting and blew up himself. (Death toll at least 110 and the injured more than 200)  

On 3 March 2009, 12 gunmen fired at a convoy carrying Sri Lankan cricketers and officials near Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore. (Death toll 8 including policemen and civilians, and the injured 6 Sri Lankan cricketers)  

On 28 October 2009, anarchists set off a car bomb in a market mostly for women in Peshawar. (Death toll at least 118 and the injured over 200)

On 1 January 2010, a throng was watching a volleyball game in Lakki Marwat of North-West Frontier Province. A suicide bomber entered the throng and blew up his vehicle. (Death toll at least 105)

All these incidents did not ensue only from abhorrence between different religious communities. Powerful parties and organizations sponsored major incidents in different countries. Here, discussion moves not around national terrorism but around international terrorism in three countries of South Asia. This study has ascertained reasons of international terrorism in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and found some ways for peace. 

Terrorism

United Nations General Assembly defines terrorism in this way — ‘Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them.’[1]

In a general word, terrorism is a violent action of a person or group, to terrify targets, to show power and thus finally to attain a specific goal.

Terrorism includes following features.

1) It involves one or some persons or groups or organizations or governments of different states.

2) It resorts to force, destructive ways and weapons to bring in a specific social, economic or political change, desired by a terrorist group.

3) It may be either an intentional threat or a real action to terrify targets that may bring forth massive, sudden publicity for a terrorist group.

4) It receives a fund from personal, national or international levels.

5) It has an end that may be social, political, economic, religious, ethnic and the like. 

6) It may damage private or public property, and may kill or injure either combatants or civilians atrociously. Victims may be either enemies or civilians, who are sacrificed for greater purposes of a society or the world, as terrorists believe. 

7) It may include one terrific incident or a series of concerted actions. 

8) It may function in national and international levels.

Two types of terrorism are visible. 1. Sponsored Terrorism: In this case, a person or group subscribes to the fund of actors and provides ideological or logistic support to them from behind. 2. Active Terrorism: In this case, a person or group organizes, plans and carries out violent actions by his/its own activists.

Terrorism can be divided into two types again. 1) National Terrorism: In a country, political parties exercise terrorism for achieving their own political goals through intimidating governments and people. Some rival parties in a country want to get power through creating political instability. These parties make plans and subscribe money to extremists so that they can orchestrate terrorist attacks, which will create a chaotic situation. People will be induced to lose trust in the working government thinking it failed to give security to them. From such plans, many terrorist attacks occurred in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Many times, ruling parties back terrorists to annihilate their rivals. 2) International Terrorism: In this type, one or more groups/ organizations/ states exercise terrorism to achieve political goals of a community or a state or more than one groups in international sphere. In many cases, it may be revenge from their own beliefs and historical explanations. On the other hands, both national and international terrorists keep connections between them.

In many countries, it was observed that ruling parties, oppositions, armies, policemen, intelligence agencies, extremists, fanatics, chauvinists, revolutionaries, and the mass were sometimes involved in terrorist activities, for examples, Israeli army, Palestinian armed group Hamas, US intelligence agency CIA, Afghanistan-based militant group al-Qaeda, Pakistan-based militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba, etc. CIA sometimes sponsored terrific assassinations in Asian and African countries. An organization may not be apparently a terrorist in structure and function, but its one or more secret steps of actions may be badly terrific.  

Our discussion here is not on national terrorism, but on international terrorism with the reference of three incidents.

Three Examples

Ramna Batamul Attacks in Dhaka, 2001

Islamic militants orchestrated bomb attacks near a concert stage at the log of the famous banyan tree in Ramna park, Dhaka on 14 April, 2001. That day was the first day of Bengali New Year, 1408. Many people gathered to celebrate New Year by dancing, singing and wearing Bengali dresses. Militants, who were linked with Talibans, considered celebration of this festival un-Islamic. Attackers bore country-made bombs,[2] which they wanted to throw at stage by besieging that stage, but bombs went off before their arrival from the pressure of the mass. Targets were those singers, who were performing on the stage.              

Place of Attacks: In Dhaka, 1) near a concert stage at the log of the famous banyan tree in Ramna Park. 

Casualties: Death toll 10 and the injured more than 100.[3]

Organizer of Attacks:  Harkat-ul-Jihad-al Islami Bangladesh (Huji-B)

Mumbai Attacks, 2008

Terrorists waged the organized attacks in Mumbai, India from 26 to 29 November, 2008. Selected sites of attacks were five star hotels, a cafe, the main railway station, a hospital, streets, etc. They entered these places by indiscriminate firing and grenade lobbing. During operations, snipers shot from AK-47 rifles, and hurled Type 86 grenades, made by China’s state-owned company Norinco.[4] They took hostages for their defense, hiding and sniping. Targets were both high administrative personnel and civilians since both Indian and foreign members of their parliaments stayed at night in five star hotels. Battles between attackers and policemen closed this chapter with a permanent sore in relations of two main religious communities.

Places of Attacks: In Mumbai, 1) Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, 2) Oberoi-Trident, 3) Taj Mahal Palace & Tower, 4) Leopold Café, 5) Cama Hospital, 6) the Orthodox Jewish-owned Nariman House, 7) Metro Cinema, 8) a lane behind Times of India building and St. Xavier’s College, 9) at Mazagaon, in Mumbai’s port area , and 10) in a taxi at Vile Parle.   

Casualties: Death toll 195 including attackers, and the injured nearly 300.[5]

Organizer of Attacks:  Pakistan-based militant organization Lashkar-e-Taiba. [6] 

Ahmadiyya Mosque Attacks in Lahore, 2010

On 28 May 2010, Islamic militants launched an onslaught on the minority Ahmadi in two mosques of Lahore city, Pakistan during Friday prayers. Their onrush broke through congregation in prayer halls by gunfire, grenade explosion and hostage taking. Attackers used AK-47 rifles, bombs and grenades. In Garhi Shahu mosque, three suicide-bombers having explosives in the body blew up themselves that caused huge casualties. Targets were the minority Ahmadi, who were often targets in Pakistan. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was born in Qadian town of Punjab under Indian subcontinent in 1835. He founded Ahmadiyya movement in 1889 to bring in reforms in deteriorated Islamic society. Ahmadis believe that Ahmad was a messiah and prophet, whose mission was to propagate Muhammad’s divine laws. But mainstream Muslims claimed that this sect disclaimed Muhammad as the final prophet. There was an immense pressure from clerics on Pakistan’s first Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto to take a step regarding this sect. Bhutto brought in a constitutional amendment that declared Ahmadis non-Muslim in 1974.   

Places of Attacks: In Lahore, 1) one Ahmadiyya mosque in Model Town and 2) the other in Garhi Shahu.     

Casualties: Death toll 80 and the injured over 100. [7]

Organizer of Attacks: Pakistan-based militant organization Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan.[8]

 

Reasons

Conflict between Majority and Minority: After ultra-Hindus had demolished Babri Mosque in Ayodhya on 6 December 1992, different places of India saw eruption of riots. Mumbai city was not an exception, where bomb explosions on 12 March 1993 killed 257 people and injured 700.[9] From then to the 2000s, explosions in this city, identified as carried out by Muslim extremists, increased the number of casualties. Conflict between advantaged majority and oppressed minority in almost all less developed countries cause terrorist attacks from the outbreak of resentment. It can be exacerbated, if a minority is a majority in a neighboring country wherefrom financial aid and logistic support are available to extremists.

Crisis of Neighbor: If a neighboring country is in turbulent politics, its neighbors will more or less experience unrest or terrorist activities. Afghanistan was devastated from the trespasses of USSR in the 1980s and USA in the 2000s. This country also came across the ruling of Islamic extremist Taliban from September 1996 to November 2001, and Taliban harbored another extremist Al-Qaeda. Now, these two extremist organizations are together active in South Asia. Pakistan’s two cities – Peshawar, capital of North-West Frontier Province, and Quetta, capital of Baluchistan Province – stand near Afghan borders. These areas were badly affected with bomb blasts in the 2000s. Kashmir is a great crisis not only for inhabitants but also for almost all of Indian Subcontinent. Bangladesh, India and Pakistan suffer from terrorist attacks of those extremists, who are united on the issue of Kashmir. Even border areas near Kashmir are suffering similarly, for example, North-West Frontier Province and Punjab Province of Pakistan, where Taliban- and Al-Qaeda-linked groups often orchestrate bomb explosions. Neighbors of Kashmir are Afghanistan on the north, China on the north and east, and Pakistan on the west. Kashmir is divided into three countries – India, Pakistan and China. This mountainous and mineral-rich territory drew neighbors to occupy such a land as would never be a fruitless something, rather a place of incessant resources. We know, being affected by each other, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan passed through political crisis. On the other hand, big arms-manufacturers such as China and United States undoubtedly fueled fire with legal or illegal arms supply. 

Revenge: Attacks and counterattacks are common in human history from time immemorial. US sided with Israel that expropriated Palestinians of their claimed land. Islamic radical group Al-Qaeda, founded by Saudi leader Osama bin Laden and based in Afghanistan, was displeased at the presence of US soldiers in Saudi Arabia and American favor to Israel. Some members of this organization hijacked 4 jetliners and flew two planes into twin-towers of the World Trade Center in New York on 11 September 2001. The crashed aircrafts smashed the buildings and killed thousands. In retaliation, the UK and US military alliance along with some other countries waged wars against Afghanistan and Iraq in the 2000s what they called war on terrorism or crusade. Retaliation went on in the form of terrorist attacks. In the 2008 Mumbai attacks, terrorists especially rounded up American and British citizens in hotels and killed Israelis, Americans, French nationals, Australians, Canadians, a British Cypriot, a German, a Japanese, an Italian, etc.[10] It proved that they launched vindictive assaults especially on those people, whose countries joined the military alliance on wars against Afghanistan and Iraq.   

Connections between Radicals: Militants of South Asia have sewn a network of connections that transfers ideological beliefs and provides logistic-financial supports. The chief leader of Harkat-ul-Jihad-al Islami Bangladesh, who was accused of Ramna Batamul bomb-attacks, was Mufti Abdul Hannan. He along with his retinue went to Afghanistan to get training from Talibanis.[11] Punjab branch of Pakistani Taliban was responsible for attacks on Ahmadis of Lahore on 28 May, 2010.[12]        

Thrills and Brainwashing: That some desperate youths find thrills in expeditions and belligerence was proved in above three cases, in which youths were actors. Ways of terrorist attacks in almost all cases were similar. Gunmen ravaged the place by sudden shooting, bombing and hostage taking. In above three incidents, bombers with suicide vests were present, though they did not explode themselves in every case. Deviated youths enjoy carnage while they participate in violence. It is clear that leaders embed militancy in minds of followers during training, and hire them on handsome money. Followers are believed that to carry out orders of leaders is an ordeal to get passports of paradise as leaders implement God’s revelations. Youths, who were perpetrators in Mumbai attacks in 2008, took a voyage from Karachi, Pakistan to Mumbai, India. They hijacked an Indian trawler to sail to their destination. 

Stockpiles of Illegal Arms and Ammunition: Arms smuggling is a lucrative trade among smugglers of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar as detectives identified. Bangladesh police seized arms hauls including explosives through border points and by sea more than once. Besides, many people are involved in illegal production of arms. Moreover, because of wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, huge arms flooded South Asia by slipping to ordinary people. Availability of arms is the reason why youths can abuse those in their show of resentment. During Mumbai attacks in 2008, terrorists hurled Type 86 grenades, which were made by China’s state-owned company Norinco.[13] Chinese weapons are similarly available in Bangladesh legally and illegally. It was obvious that external powers often handed over caches of weapons to radical groups of different countries to help their favorable party rise in power, for example, during Soviet occupation of Afghanistan from 1979 to 1989, Soviet-oriented governments and antigovernment guerrilla forces fought against each other. United States, Saudi Arabia, Iran and China subscribed money to these guerilla forces and supplied weapons. These guerrillas were working from bases around Peshawar city of Pakistan, and from Iran.[14]

Mitigation

Reconciliation: Countries should reconcile themselves for their benefits in the long run. Bangladesh and India have cracked relation with Pakistan from separation. India and China have bitter relation on long-unsettled border crisis. Myanmar and Bangladesh have such on Rohingya refugee crisis. These relations have severe impact on unyielding attitude and aggressive behavior of extremists. Also, all countries should stop alienation among all religious communities.

Rights of Minority: Governments and citizens should implement minority rights. Sympathy and kind cannot efface the feeling of deprivation and indignation from minds of the minority. All equal opportunities in socio-economic and political life as well as secularity not only in word but also in practice can extinguish the fire between different peoples of a country. Hostilities among religious communities ensue from activities of fanatics who think the use of violence right as their only way. Governments of all neighboring countries can promote friendly attitude of citizens by government initiatives such as education and publicity.   

Kashmir: Surrounded by India, Pakistan and China, Kashmir is an enclave, independence of which can eventually and largely bring peace in South Asia. But, it is hard because three ambitious big powers are not ready to leave their shares. If UN becomes a mediator to liberate Kashmiris for the protection of humanity, South Asia can avoid many unexpected terrorist attacks, because some terrorist organizations are formed and interwoven for the liberation of Kashmir.  

Afghanistan, Iraq and Israel: No more imperialist position of foreign soldiers can be expectable in Afghanistan and Iraq, if South Asia wants to settle a peaceful situation. It is wise to let a country’s people determine their own fates. If governments in Afghanistan harbor terrorists, other countries can check them by imposing socio-economic embargos. Presence of foreign soldiers and their control of state-power irritate inhabitants and give rise to extremists who sometimes make neighboring countries their sanctuaries. Conflict between Palestine and Israel has intensified since the establishment of Israel state in 1948 on the land, which both sides claim as land of their ancestors. This conflict is the reason of rage among Islamic extremists. As soon as, Palestinians, being free from Israeli interference, get their right on land, terrorism may reduce dramatically.   

Myanmar: This Southeast Asian country is a great crisis for South Asian peace. Being driven and tortured by armies, Muslim minors of this country often take refuge in Bangladesh. For survival, they have few opportunities of normal livelihood rather than illegal activities. Therefore, they vulnerably become arms smugglers and trainers of local militants on hire in Bangladesh as detectives identified. Thus, arms smugglers of India, Bangladesh and Myanmar come certainly close to each other. Myanmar needs a democratic party in power, which will be equal to minority and majority.  

Arrest, Correction and Extradition of Terrorists: As long as felons are scot-free, no country is safe from unthinkable dangers. It is better that policemen and detectives arrest and send them to courts as well as extradite them. But if the powerful help them to get bails, what has been in practice in Bangladesh since independence, all endeavors to stop any kind of terrorism will be meaningless. Impunity from crossfire or death sentence is necessary on the infallible argument that severe punishment cannot mitigate the crisis. Bloodshed and hatred may give birth to an endless history of revenge among countries or religious communities. Jail authorities should give priority to correction of inmates so that they can change their beliefs and accept peace. 

Disarmament and Seizure of Illegal Weapons: If major powers do not implement disarmament policy, the world will not retreat from bloodshed. Being unbiased, border guards should be active and alert to stop the entrance of arms hauls through border points and ports in a country. Law-enforcement agencies will raid illegal arms factories. It is also necessary to keep an eye upon government arsenals, wherefrom arms and explosives often slip to criminals by illegal ways.

Education and Economic Solvency: An illiterate nation can be more aggressive than the literate one, as their conscience and consciousness can hardly be awake, while beasts in their inside are unfettered. This is the reason why bomb attacks seldom occur in Europe and America, when these are common in Asia and Africa. If a large number of people are enlightened with proper education, destructive activities will subside expectedly. Youths have now gone astray being depressed from unemployment. Economic solvency by creating employment opportunities and less disparity may lessen terrorism.

Ban on Extremism: All countries should ban extremism immediately. Islamic militants in India-Pakistan-Bangladesh and Ultra-Hindus in India take revenge on civilians. Intolerance and violence accrue from extremism. If extremism is not banned, these unexpected incidents can be repeated at short intervals.

Conclusion

Shooting, bombing and hostage taking are common means of terrorism. Terrorism terminated lives as huge as it left disabled people; it occasionally stretched its hand to cause destruction of national wealth. Universal brotherhood as a famous concept is fading, and communalism as a notorious one is reappearing. World people are sharply being divided into different religious communities. This communalism fuels fire in minds of terrorists to attack their targeted foes. In this crucial moment of the world, expectation lays on one thing that countries will improve their relations so that communal violence can decrease remarkably.

In Lahore case, target in Pakistan was a minority Islamic sect named Ahmadi. But in Bangladesh, militants sometimes attacked Ahmadis and their mosques. It proved that international militants have close ties to be active in South Asia. In Ramna blast, targets in Bangladesh were liberal Muslims who practice and transmit Bengali culture including singing and dancing to new generations. In Mumbai attack, Hindus were targets because ultra-Hindus often attacked Muslims in India, and because it is believed that Muslims are deprived there in socio-economic and political life. In these three incidents, attackers were Islamic militants, linked with Taliban and Al-Qaeda. Places of attacks were remarkable historical cities, namely Dhaka, Lahore and Mumbai, to draw attention of governments and people of the world all of a sudden.  

International political incidents are closely interrelated. A war may end, but from the smoldering of hatred, left behind by the war, many subsequent, unscrupulous terrorist attacks may rise as offshoots. Israel’s occupation of Palestine propagated many series of incidents in the world from resentment. Palestinians claimed land of their forefathers. Western and Arab worlds were divided on their taking two opposite sites. From this reason, Muslims and Christians let communal hatred reappear between themselves, leaving all judgments that human beings acquired through civilization in the mean time. After Al-Qaeda’s attack on twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York on 11 September 2001, US-led military alliances waged wars against Afghanistan in 2001 and Iraq in 2003 that kindled hatred among war-suffered inhabitants. If world people want enduring peace, they should resolve these crises right away. 

References Cited

BBC News (UK)

2010                 ‘Who are the Ahmadi?’

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8711026.stm

Dhaka Courier (Dhaka) 

2004                 Shamim Ahmed. ‘Bombs in Sylhet.’ Dhaka Courier, 13 August, pp. 6-7.

Global Times (China)

2010                 ‘80 killed in Lahore attack.’

http://world.globaltimes.cn/asia-pacific/2010-05/536632.html

Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia (USA) CDs

2002a               ‘Afghanistan.’

2002b               ‘Jammu and Kashmir.’

Microsoft Encarta Reference Library (USA) CDs

2004a               ‘Al-Qaeda.’

2004b               ‘Taliban.’

Prothom Alo (Dhaka)

2004a               ‘Explosions in the Urs of Shah Jalal (R), 2 dead.’ Prothom Alo, 13 January.

2004b               Ahmed Nur and Partha Sarathi Das. ‘Bomb-attack on British High Commissioner in Sylhet, 2 dead.’ Prothom Alo, 22 May.

2004c               ‘The attempt to murder Sheikh Hasina: 14 died by grenade attack.’ Prothom Alo, 22 August.

2010                 ‘Lahore-e Dui Masjide Santrasi Hamlay Nihata 80’ (80 people are killed in a terrorist attack in Lahore). Prothom Alo, 29 May.

Samakal (Dhaka)

2010                 ‘Lahore-e Ahmadiyya Masjide Jangi Hamlay Nihata 76’ (76 people are killed by militant attacks in Ahmadiyya Mosques of Lahore). Samakal, 29 May, p.12.       

The Bangladesh Observer (Dhaka)

2008                 ‘Mumbai battle ends.’ The Bangladesh Observer, 30 November.

 

 

The Daily Ajker Kagoj (Dhaka)

2001a               The Daily Ajker Kagoj, 16 April.

2001b               ‘Ashankajanakbhabe Barchhe Bomar Bybahar’ (The use of bombs is increasing dangerously).  The Daily Ajker Kagoj, 17 April.

2001c               ‘Ramnar Boma Hamlay Ekti Moulabadi Group O Bideshi Goyenda Sangstha Jarita’ (A fundamentalist party and a foreign intelligence agency are involved in Ramna bomb attacks). The Daily Ajker Kagoj, 17 April.

The Daily Bhorer Kagoj (Dhaka)

2001                 The Daily Bhorer Kagoj, 16 April.

2008                 ‘Mumbai Mukta: Nihater Sankhya 195 Jan’ (Mumbai free: death toll 195). The Daily Bhorer Kagoj, 30 November.

The Daily Sangbad (Dhaka)

2001a               The Daily Sangbad, 16 April. 

2001b               Hajjer Samay Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghan O Sri Lankar Talibani Chakra Saudi Arabe Baithak Kare (An intrigue of Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka arranged a meeting during their Hajj in Saudi Arabia). The Daily Sangbad, 17 April.

2008                 ‘Mumbai Hamlar Sange Al-Qaeda Jarita Thakte Pare: Goyenda Report’ (Al-Qaeda may be involved in Mumbai attacks: detective report). The Daily Sangbad, 29 November.

The Daily Star (Dhaka)

2001                 ‘Carnage at Ramna Batamul.’ The Daily Star, 16 April.

2004                 ‘Grenade attack: Investigators clueless even after a month.’ The Daily Star, 21 September.

2008                 ‘Mumbai siege over.’ The Daily Star, 30 November.

2010a               ‘Ramna Batamul Blast Cases: Trial trapped in legal tangle.’ http://thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=134326

2010b               ‘Attack on Pak Ahmadi mosques kills 80.’ The Daily Star, 29 May.

 

 

The New York Times (USA)

2010                 ‘Attackers Hit Mosques of Islamic Sect in Pakistan.’ The New York Times.

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/29/world/asia/29pstan.html?scp=1&sq=Lahore%20Attacks,%2028%20May%202010&st=cse 

Voice of America, Bangla (Washington, DC)

2009                 ‘Bangladesh Charges Fourteen Operatives of HUJI in Ramna Batamul Blast.’

http://www1.voanews.com/bangla/news/a-16-2009-04-16-voa3-94461304.html?moddate=2009-04-16

Wikipedia (USA)

2008                 ‘2008 Mumbai attacks.’

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_Mumbai_attacks

2010a               ‘List of terrorist incidents in Pakistan since 2001.’

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_terrorist_incidents_in_Pakistan_since_2001

2010b               ‘May 2010 Lahore attacks.’

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/May_2010_Lahore_attacks

2010c               ‘Terrorism.’

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism

2010d               Terrorism in India.’

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism_in_India

……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

*Kamrun Nahar received her PhD degree from Institute of Bangladesh Studies (IBS) under University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Her research title was ‘Political Violence in Bangladesh: Nature and Causes.’


[1] Wikipedia, 2010c.

[2] The Daily Ajker Kagoj, 2001a.

[3] Voice of America, 2009; The Daily Sangbad, 2001a.

[4] Wikipedia, 2008.

[5] The Daily Star, 2008.

[6] Wikipedia, 2008.

[7] The Daily Star, 2010b; Prothom Alo, 2010; Global Times, 2010.                 

[8] Samakal, 2010.

[9] Wikipedia, 2008.

[10] The Daily Star, 2008; The Bangladesh Observer, 2008.  

[11] The Daily Sangbad, 2001a.

[12] The New York Times, 2010.

[13] Wikipedia, 2008.

[14] Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002a.